Soviet State Awards
Soviet State Awards
From the very first days of its existence, the young Soviet Republic was in the ring of fire fronts. Soldiers and commanders of the newly established Red Army showed unprecedented courage and heroism of defending the gains of October. September 16, 1918 decree of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Central Executive Committee) established the first Soviet award – the Order of the Red Banner. It was given to soldiers and commanders, military units and formations, groups of workers who played a prominent role in the defeat of the interventionists and internal counterrevolution. April 8, 1920 the Central Executive Committee established for rewarding senior officers – the Red Army Honorary revolutionary weapon – saber (cutlass) with gilded hilt and pommel superimposed on it the Order of the Red Banner.
In Soviet republics, formed in the South Caucasus and Central Asia, were established their own military awards. Thus, the Red Banner Order existed in Azerbaijan and Armenia, Georgia and Khorezm, and in the Bukhara People’s Republic – the Order of the Red Star of three degrees.
After the formation of the USSR in 1922, Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR, on August 1, 1924 established the single-Union Order of the Red Banner, and the awarding military orders in the Union republics was terminated.
The Civil war was over. New labor challenges confronted the Soviet people. December 28, 1920 VIII All-Russian Congress of Soviets of the RSFSR established the Order of the Red Banner for the awards for outstanding achievements in the field of economic and cultural development. Later, the Order of labor was introduced in other republics: Ukraine, Belarus, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and the Central Asian republics.
Years passed. A period of the socialism constructing developed. And there were new labor rewards in the USSR. September 7, 1928 was established the Order of Red Banner of Labor of the USSR, and by April 6, 1930 Resolution of the Presidium of the USSR Central Executive Committee ‘was set the highest Soviet award – the Order of Lenin. With it were awarded individual citizens, groups of enterprises and public organizations for their outstanding achievements in socialist construction. November 25, 1935 Order “Badge of Honor” was established, which was awarded to individuals and teams for achievement of high performance in industry, agriculture and transport.
December 27, 1938 by the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR was established the highest degree of distinction for merit in the field of economic and cultural development – the title of Hero of Socialist Labor, as well as the medal established “For Labor Valor” and “For Labor”. Gold medal “Hammer and Sickle” was established for persons awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor. In addition to the Hero of Socialist Labor, the USSR received the highest award – the Order of Lenin. For the soldiers of the Soviet Army, military units and ships distinguished themselves in the defense of the country in wartime and in peacetime, April 6, 1930 was established the Order of the Red Star.
April 16, 1934 by the Decision of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in our country was established the highest degree of distinction – the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. This title was obtained by individuals or groups who have committed a heroic deed in the interests of the Soviet state. Hero of the Soviet Union with the “Gold Star” was awarded the highest Soviet award – the Order of Lenin.
October 17, 1938 were established the first military medals “For courage” and “For Service in Battle”. During the Great Patriotic War against Nazi Germany to honor the soldiers and commanders of the Soviet Army who distinguished themselves in battle, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on 20 May 1942 was established the Order of the Patriotic War, 1 st and 2 nd degree. This order after the death of the awarded was passed to his family and kept as memory.
During World War II the Soviet Army strengthened. In many parts of the front, Soviet troops, by going to the counter-attack, successfully crushed the fascist hordes. July 29, 1942 were established Orders, named after the great Russian generals – Order of Suvorov 1, 2 and 3rd degree, Kutuzov 1, 2 and 3rd degree and the Order of Alexander Nevsky. They were awarded to the commanders of high qualities, who managed to win in combat operations.
In the days of fierce fighting for the Soviet Ukraine, October 10, 1943 was established the Order, associated with the name of an outstanding historical figure and commander of Ukraine Bohdan Khmelnytsky. This order of 1, 2 and 3rd degree was awarded to commanders and soldiers of the Soviet Army and guerrilla groups who have shown courage and bravery in defeating the enemy.
In the midst of the offensive fighting of the Soviet Army on November 3, 1943, were established the two Orders – the Order of “Victory” and the Order of Glory. The Order of “Victory” was given to a person of the supreme command of the Soviet Army for the success of major combat operations. Order of Glory 1st, 2nd and 3rd degree was awarded to privates and sergeants of the Soviet Army who have shown special bravery, courage and fearlessness in the battle with the enemy.
For those who fought heroically against the enemy at sea, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR from March 3, 1944 have been established medals, named after the famous Russian admirals Ushakov and Nakhimov. Orders of Ushakov 1st and 2nd degree and Nakhimov of the 1 st and 2 nd degree was awarded to the admirals, generals and officers of the Navy, medals of Ushakov and Nakhimov – to starshinas (petty officer) and sailors.
During the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution was established the Order of the October Revolution, which was awarded to individuals, enterprises and institutions, military units and formations, as well as the republics, territories, regions and cities for his services to the Soviet state.
During the war, the Soviet government set up a number of medals that were awarded to millions of Soviet soldiers and home front workers. They are – medal “Partisan of the Patriotic War” 1 st and 2 nd degree; medal for the defense of hero-cities Moscow, Leningrad, Odessa, Sevastopol, Stalingrad, Kiev, as well as for the defense of the Caucasus and the Soviet Arctic; Medal “For Victory over Germany in Great Patriotic War of 1941 – 1945” and “For Valiant Labor in the Great Patriotic War 1941 – 1945”. The medals were awarded to the participants who liberated European cities – Budapest, Konigsberg, Vienna, Berlin, Warsaw, Belgrade and Prague. Finally, after winning over Japan was established a medal “For the Victory over Japan”, September 30, 1945.
In the USSR were awarded the honorary title – “Heroine Mother” mothers having many children, the award was established as the order “Maternal Glory” 1, 2, and 3 rd degree and “Medal of motherhood” 1 st and 2 nd degree.
There are commemorative medals “20 years to the Workers ‘and Peasants’ Red Army”, “30 years of the Soviet Army and Navy”, “40 years of Military Forces of the USSR”, “50 Years of the USSR Armed Forces”, “50 years of the Soviet militia.”
In the postwar years was established a number of medals, awarded to the Soviet people who expressed themselves in different areas of our national life, and some awards are given to particular important events and historical dates.